By Michael Charleston Chua
Amidst the concrete jungle in the middle of the city of Caloocan, amongst the smog of pollution, stands the dignified figure of Andres Bonifacio—national hero, Founder of the Katipunan, Father of the Filipino Nation, the great plebeian who spearheaded the Filipino revolution against the Spaniards. The Bonifacio Monument is mute, but Bonifacio’s eyes made of bronze were shouting, reminding us for a moment to stop from the gray and frenzied hurly-burly of city life, and reflect on the greatness of the “Supremo.”
Andres Bonifacio (b. 30 November 1863, d. 10 May 1897), was a self-taught orphan who became a theater actor and an employee of two international companies in Manila. His social consciousness and deep understanding of his culture led to his involvement in Dr. José Rizal’s La Liga Filipina, and in founding the Kataastaasang Kagalanggalangang Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan (The Highest, Most Venerable Association of the Sons of the People), or the Katipunan, in 1892. The movement’s membership increased when he assumed the leadership as the “Supremo” and in August 1896, started the revolution which will eventually bring down the three centuries of Spanish domination in the Philippines. In 1897, when politics prevailed among the Katipuneros in Cavite, Bonifacio was replaced by Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo as leader of the revolution, in a series of events which led to the Supremo’s execution by men from the organization he himself founded.
Work on the monument started when Doña Aurora Aragon-Quezon placed a cornerstone on the site on the birth anniversary of Bonifacio, 30 November 1929. A competition was launched and sculptors submitted proposals for the design of the monument using aliases. The design chosen was that of Guillermo Tolentino, a graduate of classical sculpture in Rome. The monument, which was inaugurated on 30 November 1933, is regarded as one of the world’s finest monuments.
At the top of the 45 feet high obelisk is a figure very similar to the classical sculpture “Winged Victory.” The octagonal base represents the first eight provinces that revolted against Spain in 1896. Around the obelisk, 23 figures in darkened bronze depict the events that led to the Philippine Revolution: The execution of the three martyr priests Gomez, Burgos at Zamora, and the injustices committed by the Spanish colonizers against the Filipinos.
The dominating figure of course is that of Andres Bonifacio, calm and dignified amidst the turbulent events around him, with bolo on one hand and a revolver in the other. Behind him is the figure of Emilio Jacinto, brains of the Katipunan, and a standard bearer. Surrounding the triad are two bolo-wielding Katipuneros symbolizing the spirit of the first cry of the revolution in Balintawak—the call to arms and the people’s response to this call.
The monument was constructed during the time when the issue of Philippine Independence from the Americans was being deliberated upon, and when many of those who participated in the revolution led by Bonifacio were still around—nationalistic feeling around the country was very much intense, and not a few got emotional seeing the monument. Some say, that although Tolentino sculpted all the other figures in the realistic style (where the pain and suffering of the Filipinos were greatly manifested), the figure of Bonifacio in Barong Tagalog was the only figure done in the classical style (imitating the Graeco-Roman figures that show no emotions). It was said that this is what the Americans wanted because a defiant Bonifacio might inspire another rebellion.
But according to Tolentino’s student, Napoleon Abueva, the suffering figures and the dignified Bonifacio shows that whatever happens, they will prevail:
“…the hooded head with the ever-tightening garrote about to nip a life, the hapless mothers and forsaken children in Tolentino’s monumental masterpiece, allow us to relive the sufferings and dire consequences of the times… The tragic related events and corresponding feeling of desolation, of hopelessness that Tolentino’s figures evoke, contrasted by the stance of soaring confidence and hope in Bonifacio’s expressive gesture, together with the defiant bolo-wielding compatriots, provide a reassuring promise of eventual success at all costs—reminding us of an old saw which goes this way: Great was the sacrifice and great was their reward.”
For Abueva, a look at the monument will give a feeling of pride in the resilient Filipino spirit, “…the legacy of a promising tomorrow gleaned from a cruel and troubled past, the accounts and instances of utterly depressed feeling, buoyed up and transformed to lofty feelings of inherent pride and enrichment of the Filipino soul…”
The monument is a testament to the superiority of Tolentino as a visual historian. In preparation for the construction of the monument, he interviewed people and went to the extent of using the bone structure of the Supremo’s sister, Espiridiona Bonifacio, in making the head of the Supremo. Despite the research, the monument was not spared from controversies. It depicted Bonifacio far from the stereotype of him at that time as a man dressed in camisa de chino with a bolo at one hand and the Katipunan flag on the other, yelling like wild. Ambeth Ocampo writes:
When the protests came in, Tolentino countered his critics with his research. The likeness was based not only on a photograph of Bonifacio, but on the bone structure of his sister Espiridiona as well. Interviews of surviving Katipuneros gave an idea of his attire and revealed that, contrary to popular belief, Bonifacio favored in battle his gun over his bolo. One account says that on their way to Caloocan in 1896, many Katipuneros traveled disguised as women to get past the Spanish police and military. To make his baro’t saya more convincing, Bonifacio had to leave his bolo behind and take his gun instead. Tolentino left no stone unturned in his research, and he was prepared to show documentation for such minute details as the position of the holster on Bonifacio’s belt. Over and above all this, Tolentino even consulted espiritistas to discern the true likeness and character of Bonifacio.
In 1973, the title National Artist for Sculpture was conferred on Tolentino in 1973.
The site of the monument in Caloocan was aptly named “monumento” by the people themselves, and for a long long time it was the landmark for traveller’s from the north that they’re entering Manila through the MacArthur Highway. That’s why the sight of the monument gives a feeling of journey’s end, until the North Luzon Expressway and Abueva’s The Transfiguration replaced monumento as Manila’s gateway from the north.
Today, because it has become part of the daily lives of the people of Caloocan, it seems that the monument is being neglected and only a few people notice the beauty and ponder on the significance of the monument. But recently, the monument caught attention once again in 2002, when its transfer to faraway Tala in the same city was proposed by Mayor Rey Malonso to give way for the Light Rail Transit Extension. This move was prevented by a resolution by the National Historical Institute, signed by its chairman Ambeth Ocampo, which reminds everyone that the Bonifacio Monument is a national shrine and that transferring it would be against the law.
The lasting relevance of the monument is a reflection of the continuing importance to the people of the life and heroism of Manong Andres himself. Militant groups, in many protests, rally around another statue of his in Manila. In 1997, a book by the American historian Glenn Anthony May who brought out questions on what we know about the Supremo, sparked a debate among scholars on the Philippines. With the centennial of the Philippine Revolution and the Proclamation of Philippine Independence in the 1990’s, recent scholarship clarified misconceptions. Before, the impression was that the educated Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo was superior in terms of leadership and military skills than the impulsive Bonifacio. But the Supremo was found out to be an excellent organizer with a movement whose members spread out across the archipelago (Ferdinand C. Llanes (ed), Katipunan: Isang Pambansang Kilusan, 1994); a military tactician informed of pre-colonial war strategies of the Filipinos which used the natural environment to their advantage (Zeus A. Salazar, Ang ‘Real’ ni Bonifacio Bilang Teknikang Militar sa Kasaysayan ng Pilipinas, 1997; Zeus A. Salazar, Agosto 29-30, 1896: Ang Pagsalakay ni Bonifacio sa Maynila, 1995); the first president of the revolutionary government (and of the country) who had a clear idea of the Filipino nation in Katagalugan, which he defined as all people who were born in the whole archipelago and not just the Tagalogs (Milagros C. Guerrero, et. al., Andres Bonifacio and the 1896 Revolution, 1996); and the leader who urged his compatriots to have bait, puri at dangal (rooting itself to the values of our ancestors) just as they were brave (Milagros C. Guerrero, Pagtanaw sa Kasaysayan, Paghahanda sa Himagsikan: Mga Ideya ng Katipunan, 1892-1897, 1998). With these and many other new studies, Andres Bonifacio emerges as a leader who wanted not just mere political independence, but kaginhawahan—materially and morally free—just as our ancestors were before the colonizers came. They remain to be our aspirations for a better country, the same one that Bonifacio and our forebears before us fought for and symbolized by his monument.
Landmarks, such as the Bonifacio Monument, are reminders of our past that made us what we are today. Landmarks do not feed us physically for sure. But man doesn’t live by bread alone, for he has a soul that searches for identity and belonging. The monument is a proud reminder of the greatness of our bloodline we all belong to, and of the victorious revolution we waged in 1896-1898. To neglect these national treasures is like forgetting our own personal past and genesis—amnesia—and forgetting the heroes of 1896 is like forgetting the sacrifices of our own parents. If we would lose the landmarks of our past, how would we ever know where we are, and where we are going as a nation?
As we gaze upon the Supremo and the men and women around that obelisk, let us think about the sacrifices of those before us who did not sleep in the dark of night, those who sacrificed their lives for the freedom of their children—for us. They want us to carry on with what they had fought for, not by the bolo in a time of revolution, but simply by being productive and vigilant citizens, just like the Supremo more than a hundred years ago. As if we can hear him call on us from those bronze figures once again with his words from the Dekalogo ng Katipunan: “Ang pagsusumikap at pagpipilit na kumita ng ikabubuhay ay nagpapahayag ng tunay na pagmamahal sa sarili, sa asawa, anak, kapatid, at kababayan.” (Diligence in the work that gives sustenance to thee is the true basis of love — love for thine own self, for thine wife and children, for thine brothers and countrymen.) Personally, I see the monument as a reminder of how a working class hero made a difference, and how we can too.
22 March 2004 / 22 May 2007
University of the Philippines at Diliman
Consulted Works and Sources:
Acero, Francis. Thoughts on the Bonifacio Monument. Online, Internet. Available URL: http://www.tinig.com/v12/v12francis.html.
Agoncillo, Teodoro A. The Revolt of the Masses: The Story of Bonifacio and the Katipunan. Quezon City, U. of the Philippines P., 1956.
Bonifacio, Andres. “Decalogue” sa The Writings and Trial of Andres Bonifacio (translated by Teodoro A. Agoncillo and S. V. Epistola. Manila: Antonio J. Villegas; Manila Bonifacio Centennial Commission; University of the Philippines, 1963, p. 1.
Churchill, Bernardita Reyes. Determining The Truth: The Story of Andres Bonifacio (being critiques of and commentaries on Inventing a hero, the post-humous re-creation of Andres Bonifacio). Manila : Manila Studies Association, 1997.
Cristobal, Adrian E. The Tragedy of the Revolution. Quezon City: U. of the Philippines P., 2005.
De los Reyes, Isabelo. The Religion of the Katipunan or the Old Beliefs of the Filipinos (translated by Joseph Martin Yap). Quezon City: Teresita A. Alcantara, Ph.D., 2002.
Estrada, Eric and John Realubit. “Bonifacio Monument Stays Put” in Manila Times, 25 January 2003. Online, Internet. Available URL: http://www.manilatimes.net/national/2003/jan/25/metro/20030125met5.html.
FHL Research Team . The Bonifacio Monument: Hail to the Chief! Online, Internet. Available URL: http://www.librarylink.org.ph/featarticle.asp?articleid=50.
Guerrero, Milagros C. “Pagtanaw sa Kasaysayan, Paghahanda sa Himagsikan: Mga Ideya ng Katipunan, 1892-1897,” Kasarinlan: A Philippine Quarterly of Third World Studies, Vol. 14, Num. 1, 1998, pp. 37-52.
Guerrero, Milagros C., Emmanuel N. Encarnacion and Ramon N. Villegas. “Andres Bonifacio and the 1896 Revolution,” Sulyap Kultura, Second Quarter 1996, pp. 3-12.
Ileto, Reynaldo Clemeña. Pasyon and Revolution: Popular Movements in the Philippines, 1840-1910. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila U.P., 1979)
Llanes, Ferdinand C. (ed). Katipunan: Isang Pambansang Kilusan. Quezon City: Trinitas Publishing, Inc., 1994.
Maceda, Teresita Gimenez. “The Katipunan Discourse on Kaginhawaan: Vision and Configuration of a Just and Free Society,” Kasarinlan: A Philippine Quarterly of Third World Studies, Vol. 14, Num. 2, 1998, pp. 77-94.
May, Glenn Anthony. Inventing A Hero: The Posthumous Re-creation of Andres Bonifacio. Quezon City: New Day Publishers, 1997.
Medina, Isagani R. Great Lives: Andres Bonifacio. Makati City: Tahanan Books for Young Readers, 1992.
__________. (ed). Ilang Talata Tungkol sa Paghihimagsik (Revolucion) Nang 1896-1897 Isinulat ni Carlos Ronquillo y Valdez (Hongkong 1898). Lungsod Quezon: U. of the Philippines P., 1996.
Navarro, Arthur M. and Raymund Arthur G. Abejo (eds). Wika, Panitikan, Sining at Himagsikan. Lungsod Quezon: LIKAS, 1998.
Ocampo, Ambeth R. Bones of Contention: The Bonifacio Lectures. Pasig City: Anvil Publishing, Inc., 2001.
__________. Bonifacio’s Bolo. Pasig City: Anvil Publishing, Inc., 1994.
Salazar, Zeus A. Agosto 29-30, 1896: Ang Pagsalakay ni Bonifacio sa Maynila (salin ni Monico M. Atienza). Quezon City: Miranda Bookstore, 1995.
__________.“Ang ‘Real’ ni Bonifacio Bilang Teknikang Militar sa Kasaysayan ng Pilipinas,” Bagong Kasaysayan: Mga Pag-aaral sa Kasaysayan ng Pilipinas Lathalain Blg. 1. Mandaluyong City: Palimbagang Kalawakan, 1997.
__________. “Si Andres Bonifacio at ang Kabayanihang Pilipino,” Bagong Kasaysayan: Mga Pag-aaral sa Kasaysayan ng Pilipinas Lathalain Blg. 2. Mandaluyong City: Palimbagang Kalawakan, 1997.
Sison, Marites. National Artist Guillermo Tolentino: Monumental Spirit. Online, Internet. Available URL:http://www.filipinasmag.com/Main/Sept2003Tolentino.htm.
Ventura, Sylvia Mendez. Supremo: The Story of Andres Bonifacio. Makati City: Tahanan Books for Young Readers, 2001.
As I entered the majestic wooden house of Julio Nakpil sitting serenely like a queen amid the hustle-bustle of noisy Quiapo, mixed feelings of awe, sadness and reverence for the Filipino ancestors enveloped me. Julio Nakpil, musician, revolutionary and second husband of Gregoria de Jesus, whom she married after Andres Bonifacio died in the hands of his fellow Katipuneros, took care of Ka Oriang after her and her first husband’s ordeal in Cavite in 1897.
The Nakpil and the Lin- Bautista clans opened their ancestral house for the book launching of “Babaylan: Filipinos and the Call of the Indigenous” to the book enthusiasts, historians, women and students as well to commemorate the birthday of Bonifacio that falls today, 30 November 2010. The women descendants of Ka Oriang graciously asked the guests to tour around the big house that is now a museum of pictures, memorabilia and writings about history.
The house, before it was reconstructed in 1913, had two gates: one facing the busy street and another one serves as a get-away to the river where Ka Oriang’s eldest daughter Julia used to paddle the banca in going to school by herself. A big window facing the river was where Ka Oriang usually hang her pamingwit to catch fish for lunch. Retracing Ka Oriang’s steps, the river now is murky and dirty. Tall buildings and sign boards tried, though not successful, to dwarf the Nakpil house. Old tin roofs marked with rust spread along the riverbank as garbage and plastic bags cling lifeless wherever it can between the waters and solid ground.
Ka Oriang’s dainty looks with her coiffed black hair in a picture hanged on the wall commands admiration and respect befitting a hero and a babaylan. She speaks her mind through her “Sampung Aral ni Oriang” written on the Nakpil wall. It says in numbers 6 and 8: “Iligtas ang api sa panganib;” and “Matakot sa kasaysayan pagka’t walang lihim na di nahahayag.”
Social development activist Sister Mary John Mananzan inspired everyone when she said that the babaylans have a “dangerous and subversive memory” that the foreign colonizers failed to subvert. While they were burned at stake, beheaded and killed by the thousands, the babaylan tradition lives on.
Herstorian Fe Mangahas explained in the launching that the pre-Hispanic Philippine society had three major characters – the datu, panday and the babaylan. Where the datus and the pandays failed to continue their legacy, the babaylans continued to live in the hearts of Filipino women in the beaterios, the present-day nuns and the indigenous peoples in the north down south. She further said: “Nanatiling buhay ang diwa ng babaylan sa bawat isa sa atin – lalaki man o babae.”
Feminist Girlie Villariba who is one of the book writers brought a tampipi full of gifts from Charito Basa who is in Rome helping Filipino migrant workers. Girlie made us smell the lavender flowers, leaves and herbs – curative of mental and spiritual illnesses one has as an individual and as a collective group of people.
Chapter writer Ceres Pioquinto’s sister and relatives flew all the way from Iloilo to relate how their Lola healed people, thus, regarded as a good “tambalan” in their community.
A group of young babaylans called “babaylanins” (female) and “bayogins” (male, from the Visayan word bayog or prayer leader) taught a Palawanon way of hand gesture and greeting saying: “Nagkakaisa tayo sa diwa at sa puso.”
Professor Grace Odal, dressed in white with a flower bouquet on her head, lighted the candle at the altar, threw fragrant petal flowers up on air and danced ala-early babaylan to summon the spirits of nature to come and bless the occasion. While the book launching attendees danced to the tune of the gongs, guitar, kudyapi and bamboo musical instruments, Professor Connie Alaras said: “Natutuwa ang mga sinaunang babaylan.”
Ang kataksilan ding ito umano ang dahilan kung bakit araw ng kapanganakan (Nobyembre 30, 1863) ang ginugunita natin bilang Bonifacio Day at hindi araw ng kamatayan (Mayo 10, 1897), di tulad ng Rizal Day na araw ng kamatayan ni Ka Joey Rizal (Disyembre 30, 1896) nung barilin siya sa Luneta.
Gusto kasing iwasan ng mga gumawa ng batas na alalahanin ng taumbayan na kapwa Pinoy at mga kasangga ang tumumba sa “Ama ng Himagsikan” tuwing darating ang araw ng paggunita sa kabayanihan niya. Bagay na may pagka-estupido dahil kapanganakan o hindi, laging kasama sa paggunita kung bakit at paano namatay si Bonifacio.
Alam ng lahat na si Ka Emil Aguinaldo ang nagpapatay sa kanya. (Kahit itinanggi ito ni Ka Emil na nagsabing gusto lang niyang ipatapon ang kalaban niya sa pulitika at si Hen. Nano Noriel ang nag-utos ng pagpatay, hindi pa rin maitatatwang tuta niya si Noriel at ito ang arkitekto ng pandaraya sa eleksyon sa Tejeros, Cavite kung saan si Ka Emil ang nahalal na pangulo ng Katipunan.)
Kumpara sa iba pa nating mga bayani, si Ka Andy na yata ang pinakakawawa. Hindi siya iginagalang ng mga burgis na may kontrol ng pamahalaan. May pagkakataong ginawang National Heroes Day ang Bonifacio Day at kamakailan lamang ito naging Bonifacio Day ulit matapos ang maraming reklamo. Aping-api rin siya kahit sa paglalagay ng imahe ng bayani sa pera. Noong may dalawang piso pang sensilyo noong 1980s, solo ang imahe ni Ka Andy, kaso tinanggal nila sa sirkulasyon ang dalawang piso at bilang konswelo de bobo, isinama ang imahe niya sa imahe ni Apol Mabini sa sampung piso. Maging ang kalsadang ipinangalan sa kanya e Boni Avenue na lamang ngayon.
Lagi siyang ikinukumpara kay Ka Joey, at kahit sa pagtuturo ng kasaysayan madalas iniiwasan ang maraming detalye ng kanyang buhay, lalo sa yung parte ng masalimuot na pulitika sa loob ng Katipunan.
Lagi ring minamaliit ang kakayahan niya at sinasabing isa siyang “bodegero” sa Tondo. Pero kung ihahambing mo sa trabaho ngayon, manager siya ng isang kumpanyang pag-aari ng isang Ingles. Hindi pipitsuging trabaho ito. Sa madaling salita, kabilang siya sa middle class.
Hindi rin matatawaran ang ginawa niya matapos dumalo sa kaisa-isang pulong ng La Liga Filipina na itinayo ni Ka Joey. Binuo niya agad ang Katipunan at nagtatag ng gobyernong rebolusyunaryo kasama ng sidekick niyang si Ka Emil Jacinto. Siya rin ang nagpasumpa kay Aguinaldo sa mismong bahay niya sa Tondo.
Kanya ang Tondo, kay Aguinaldo ang Cavite. Kaso, dahil sa Maynila nakasentro ang pwersa ng mga Kastila, mas mabilis na lumakas at dumami ang kasapian ng Katipunan sa Cavite. At ’ika nga sa Ingles, the rest is history. Nagkamali si Ka Andy na pumayag ganapin sa Cavite ang isang eleksyong niluto ng mga Magdalo. Matinding panlalait ang inabot niya at nang magreklamo e ipinahuli siya, nilitis ng isang kangaroo court at pinatay kasama ng mga kapatid.
Isang trahedya na hanggang ngayon ay hindi pa nagkakaroon ng kaganapan o “closure.”
Ang Iyak ng Balintawak
BERTDEY kahapon ng idol nating si Ka Andy Bonifacio. Absent siguro ako nung itinuro ng titser ko noon kung bakit bertdey ni Ka Andy ang ipinagdiriwang tuwing Bonifacio Day samantalang kamatayan naman ni Ka Joey Rizal ang Rizal Day.
Yayamang nabanggit si Ka Andy, at nag-aalburoto rin ang marami nating kababayan – kabilang ang mga kasama natin sa hanapbuhay na namatayan ng mga katoto’t kaibigan sa kahindik-hindik na Ampatuan massacre noong isang lingo – pagbigyan n’yo na ako na medyo magsentimyento.
Nakakalungkot na hanggang ngayon e hindi pa natatagpuan ang mga buto niya at hindi pa rin magkasundo ang mga historian kung si Ka Andoy nga ang unang pangulo ng Pilipinas o si Ka Emil Aguinaldo na siyang nagpapatay sa kanya.
Ipinagpipilitan ng ilan na Hunyo 12, 1898 ang araw ng kalayaan laban sa mga Kastila samantalang Agosto 23, 1896 naman ang sabi ng iba.
Hunyo 12, 1898 kasi nang ideklara ni Ka Emil Aguinaldo ang kalayaan laban sa Kastila. Weno kung inuto lang siya ng mga Kano? Basta ang mahalaga ay lumaya tayo sa mga Kastilaloy.
Kolonyal na kaisipan ‘yan, hirit naman ng kabilang panig. Agosto 23, 1896 ang dapat ipagdiwang dahil iyon ang araw nang sumigaw si Ka Andoy ng “Tama na! Sobra na! Palitan na!” Oops, parang hindi iyon ang isinigaw niya.
A, basta. Sumigaw siya noon, kaya nga Sigaw ng Pugadlawin (o Balintawak) ang tawag dito.
Ewan ko ba kung bakit “Cry of Pugadlawin (or Balintawak)” ang naging salin nito sa Ingles. Kung sabagay, magandang pakinggan ang “Iyak ng Balintawak” dahil may tugma. Ano’ng malay natin, baka talagang nag-iyakan sila sa Balintawak dahil mahirap talagang pumunta roon nang walang sasakyan at pagkain.
Ano naman ang kinalaman ni Ka Joey Rizal sa Iyak ng Balintawak? Wala. Katunayan masama nga ang loob niya kay Ka Andy dahil ipinahamak siya ng Katipunan gayong ni hindi naman siya miyembro nito. Reporma lang daw ang gusto niya, sabi niya ke Ka Andy.
Sagot naman ni Ka Andy: “Susulat-sulat ka ng laban sa Kastila tapos aatras ka? No way, Jose. Itatakas ka na lang namin kung gusto mo.”
Sabi naman ni Ka Joey: “Hindi ko kailangan ng tulong mo. Ipaglalaban ko hanggang kamatayan ang sarili kong adhikain.”
Sabi naman ni Ka Andy: “O di sige, pero sumulat ka muna ng tula bago ka bitayin. Inspirasyon din ‘yon sa mga Katipunerong naniniwala sa iyo. Hindi ko sasabihin sa kanilang ayaw mo ng rebolusyon. Siyanga pala, bakit mo tinanggal ang tsapter na Elias at Salome sa nobela mong Noli me Tangere?”
Sayang at hindi masyadong mahilig magsulat si Ka Andy. Hindi niya tuloy naikwento kung ano ang sagot ni Ka Joey sa tanong niya.
May angking talino at mahilig ding sumulat si Ka Andy – meron nga siyang tula na ginawa pang kanta ng mga tagahanga niya – pero mas nakilala siya sa pagiging “brusko” at “hindi palaisip” na tulad ni Joey. Sayang.